Military Leadership: Art or Science?

first_imgBy studying their writings, it is possible to infer that the fundamental differences between Clausewitz and Jomini are rooted in their different concepts of the historical process, as well as the nature and role of Military theory. Like Clausewitz, Jomini built his theories on foundations formulated during the Enlightenment, adding a fundamentally reductionist and predictive character to his approach. It is undeniable that Jomini made a significant contribution to the evolution of Military thinking in trying to explain the theory of war by giving it a scientific character, whose components were clearly classified and governed by immutable universal principles. By contrast, Jomini’s view of history and war was static and simplistic. The general consciously applied the scientific method, as he understood it, to his studies of Military history. As a result of these studies, he discovered what he thought were common behavioral paradigms in Military operations. These models of behavior were codified in axioms and principles to better instruct other officers in how to organize, plan, and conduct “modern” war and would subsequently take the form of a “code of conduct.” For Clausewitz, history must be seen in relative terms, thereby rejecting absolute categories, normalization, or standardization, and pre-established values. The past has to be accepted on its own terms; that is, the historian must try to get into the mindsets and attitudes of a given period, what he calls the “zeitgeist.” Since the study of Military history and strategy is one of the cornerstones of the training of staff officers at the Chilean Army’s War Academy, it is important to consider the theoretical underpinnings of the strategic thinking we seek to develop in our students. In this context, the theories of two of the most important Military thinkers of all time, Karl von Clausewitz and Antoine Henri Jomini, have dominated the classrooms of Military academies since the 19th century. Even today, their concepts fuel a debate that strikes at the heart of Military Sciences. By Dialogo March 04, 2016 History is a dynamic process of change, driven by forces that cannot be controlled. This historicism is particularly evident in two key issues of his work “On War” (1832), which are not made explicit in his earlier work, “Principles of War” (1812). They are that “war is a continuation of politics by other means” (organized violence) and that war may vary in form depending on the changing nature of the politics and the society in which it is fought. These proposals reflect a thorough understanding of the philosophers of his time – intelligently formulating the principles of Hegelian dialectics, and the essential principles of Emmanuel Kant’s pure reason and practical reason. It creates an understanding of the dialectic of war and reaches the conclusion that, even though in theory all war is absolute, in practice it never occurs in those terms. Competing views of war Clausewitz was a 19th century Prussian general and Military theorist. He was known for emphasizing the political and psychological aspects of armed conflict and was considered a realist who relied to a large degree on the concepts of rationality. Jomini was a Swiss Military officer who served as a general in the French and Russian Armed Forces in the 19th century, and known for his writings on the Napoleonic method of war. Both Military thinkers were influenced by the European Enlightenment. It therefore seems that through these two great minds of Military history we find the roots of the claim that Military leadership is both an art and a science. In their ideas we can see the conflicting visions that are apparent today, as this dilemma has in no way been resolved. Our knowledge and understanding of war is a science, but the act of war itself is largely an art. This will not change in the future, independent of scientific and technological advances. As in the past, the character of war will change, but the nature of war – as formulated by Clausewitz – will remain unchanged. Excellent reflection…in effect, war is art and science… I like the article but I don’t think the YES – NO assessment system is adequate. According to the article, Clausewitz himself mentions that “history must be seen in relative terms, thereby rejecting absolute categories.” Maybe it would be good to come up with another kind of system that isn’t so Manichaean. Cordial regards. Great overview of military thinkers who provide excellent reflections.last_img read more


Indian Smartphone Market Grew 17 Percent YoY With 54.3 Million Units Shipped During Q3 2020: IDC

first_imgInterestingly, the premium segment saw a strong growth of 91 percent YoY and Samsung, Apple, and OnePlus were the top manufacturers. Further, there were 25 million feature phones shipped in Q3 2020 which was a decline of 30 percent YoY.Are iPhone 12 mini, HomePod mini the Perfect Apple Devices for India? We discussed this on Orbital, our weekly technology podcast, which you can subscribe to via Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, or RSS, download the episode, or just hit the play button below. The analysis shows Xiaomi took the top spot with the most smartphones shipped in Q3 2020 at 13.5 million units. This was a 25 percent market share resulting in a moderate 7.1 percent YoY growth. Next in line was Samsung with its 12.1 million smartphones shipped, pointing at a 22.3 percent market share and a much more significant 38.1 percent growth in units shipped. Following Samsung was Vivo at 9 million units and 16.7 percent market share, Realme with 8 million units and 14.7 percent market share, Oppo with 6.1 million units and 11.3 percent market share. All other brands account for 5.6 million smartphones shipped and 10 percent market share.IDC states that this growth in smartphones shipped in India is due to the fewer restrictions post lockdowns and the pent-up demand that has been further fueled by aggressive pricing. The various sales and discounts on smartphones, and the ability to maintain social distancing through online stores, have encouraged people to shop online.In terms of specifications and price trends observed by IDC in Q3 2020, manufacturers introduced a larger number of phones with quad rear cameras with 48-megapixel primary sensors or above, more than 64GB storage options, and larger than 5,000mAh batteries, while reducing the prices. About a million 5G smartphones were shipped in the third quarter. When it comes to pricing, the average selling price (ASP) declined by 2 percent YoY with 84 percent of shipments in the sub $200 (roughly Rs. 14,800) range. This was because smartphones remain the only device for internet access for a lot of households in India, IDC noted.- Advertisement – Indian smartphone market grew 17 percent in the third quarter of 2020 as per data by International Data Corporation (IDC). It shows that there were 54.3 million units shipped during the quarter, which is a 17 percent year-on-year (YoY) growth compared to the third quarter of 2019. It said Xiaomi shipped the most smartphones and experienced a 7.1 percent growth YoY, while Samsung came in second with its much more significant 38.1 percent growth. This growth in the Indian smartphone market was mainly due to fewer restrictions amid the ongoing pandemic and more aggressively priced smartphones.IDC noted that e-retailers experienced an all-time high with a 24 percent YoY growth, shipping 48 percent of the total 54.3 million units. This was likely because people were not as confident about going to stores in person due to COVID-19. However, offline channels also grew 11 percent YoY as new smartphones faced supply constraints in offline stores. IDC says the growth in online shopping may increase as companies may offer aggressive pricing and offers during the festive season.- Advertisement –center_img – Advertisement –last_img read more


New poll shows Kiwis divided over whether to decriminalise cannabis

first_imgSupport for the law change was higher among Maori (71 per cent), Green Party supporters (68 per cent), and those living in households with an annual household income of over $70,000, and up to $100,000 (59 per cent). Those aged 55 and over and National Party supporters (49 per cent) were more likely to oppose the cannabis legislation.https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/new-zealand/new-poll-shows-kiwis-divided-over-whether-decriminalise-cannabis TVNZ One News 17 July 2017Family First Comment: NZers finally saying nope to dope www.saynopetodope.org.nzThe latest 1 NEWS Colmar Brunton poll shows New Zealanders appear to be almost equally divided over decriminalising cannabis.The Drug Foundation has put forward a proposal to treat cannabis as a health issue, with its cultivation and sale regulated.A group of 1007 voters were asked: “It has been suggested that the sale of cannabis should be legalised. Its cultivation and sale would be regulated. Do you support or oppose this idea?” Just under half (47 per cent) support the legalisation of the sale of cannabis, assuming its sale and cultivation is regulated. However, two in five (41 per cent) oppose it and the remaining 12 per percent are unsure.last_img read more


Syracuse looks to rescheduled Lindenwood games as chance to implement adjustments, return to winning form ahead of CHAs

first_img Published on February 26, 2013 at 1:41 am Contact Jacob: [email protected] | @Jacob_Klinger_ When the puck drops in the first of two midweek Syracuse-Lindenwood games Tuesday night, the Orange will be 10 days away from its most important game of the season: the do-or-die College Hockey America semifinal.But SU is also 10 days removed from a gut-wrenching home loss that made No. 9 Mercyhurst conference champs.Caught between two defining moments of the near record-setting season, the Orange (18-13-1, 12-5-1 CHA) must tinker ahead of and during the regular season-ending series with the Lions (6-23-3, 6-9-3 CHA). A win would be head coach Paul Flanagan’s 300th.SU learned and relearned valuable lessons in its pair of narrow losses to Mercyhurst. Firstly, the Orange can play with the one of the nation’s best. And to do so, sometimes SU has to simply play more like them.“We have to come prepared for 60 minutes next time,” forward Holly Carrie-Mattimoe said.AdvertisementThis is placeholder textShe noted that she and her teammates might have welcomed Mercyhurst with too much confidence, dragging the squad through an emotional rollercoaster – beginning with hubris, evolving into disappointment and ultimately ending with a crucial realization.“We learned that we can compete with Mercyhurst,” Carrie-Mattimoe said, “and I think we’ll take that to the playoffs and we’ll come prepared and ready to compete next time.”Twice in 24 hours, SU entered the third period with every chance at a victory. In the Feb. 15 game, SU led 3-2 with 11:35 to play, and was poised to rip the CHA crown away from the Lakers.But the Orange couldn’t match Mercyhurst’s nonstop net-crashing style – not for long enough, at least – and coughed up three goals in 8:25 to fall 5-3.SU allowed another three goals in the first 15 minutes of Saturday’s game.“It was a little bit of a mess,” goalkeeper Kallie Billadeau said.SU skated on to the third period just a goal down after a two-goal second period, but the Orange couldn’t finish the job. The defeats signaled that the Orange has to remain committed to whichever playing style will win the game.Against the Lakers, that meant mirroring their direct, crease-bombarding offense. It’s not that SU is looking to become a cookie-cutter copy of its opponents, but it needs wins. Hosting MU meant moving the attack away from the point, where too many shots would be blocked, and instead cutting to the net and cleaning up goals.“I think we’ll just do whatever we need to score,” Carrie-Mattimoe said. “Our focus was just getting it on net and crashing, and it worked a couple times.”But SU’s adjustments didn’t work well enough, or long enough, to win. So, the Orange looks to Lindenwood re-energized by the closeness of its losses against one of the nation’s best, and aided by a long layoff. SU was scheduled to play Lindenwood last Friday and Saturday before a winter storm in the Midwest interfered with the Lions’ travel plans.The Orange has nothing to play for, in terms of conference standings. SU is locked into the No. 2 spot and a bye going into the CHA semifinals. But LU is vying for seeding before the conference tournament, which starts Saturday on the higher seed’s home ice. The Lions sit at No. 5 in the CHA, four points behind Robert Morris.Syracuse just needs to get back to the full-ice form that fueled its eight-game winning streak, because when the Orange trudges off of the ice Wednesday night, it will be 10 days away from a game that, to extend its season, SU cannot lose.“We can’t lose sight of anyone in our league anymore. … So we really have to stay on our game like we have in the past eight games,” Syracuse forward Jacquie Greco said. “So I think we just have to not oversee them and just play our game.” Comments Facebook Twitter Google+last_img read more



first_imgPaul ‘The Yank’ Boyle was sent off as Naomh Muire were narrowly defeated on their return to the Donegal SFC against Naomh Conaill.Naomh Muire returned to senior championship action for the first time since 2000 and gave a great account of themselves pushing Naomh Conaill all the way in their Donegal SFC clash at The Banks. Naomh Muire won the Intermediate championship last season and in doing so ensured a return to senior championship football.However, Naomh Conaill were expected to power past the challenge of the men from the Lower Rosses, but that didn’t materialize as a young Naomh Muire side delivered an accomplished performance. Naomh Conaill in truth were glad to hear the final whistle in the end up as 14 man Naomh Muire rallied late on with a succession of scores.In what was an absolutely bruising championship game, scores were hard to come by in the opening half.Dara White scored a couple of lovely points in the opening period, but a spate of points from Dermot Molloy and Dara Gallagher gave Naomh Conaill a three point advantage at the break.Half time score Naomh Muire 0-03 Naomh Conaill 0-06 The second-half followed a similar theme to the first, it was physical, and there were bruising challenges exchanged by both sides all over the pitch.However, Naomh Muire were dealt a hammer blow ten minutes into the second-half when Paul ‘The Yank’ Boyle was sent off.The talismanic captain is a crucial player for Naomh Muire, and Naomh Conaill used that one man advantage to stretch their lead out to six midway through the second half.Naomh Conaill looked like they would cruise to victory, but a spirited fight-back from Naomh Muire almost earned them a draw.Two cracking scores from Padraig McCafferty reduced the deficit to four 0-12 to 0-08. Then scores from Shaun ‘The Yank’ Boyle and Harry Harden reduced the arrears to just two with a few minutes left.Naomh Muire continued to put Naomh Conaill on the back foot, but the Glenties men showed their experience at this level, and just managed to get over the line.They’ll be delighted with the win, but they were made to fight for it by a spirited, well-organised and determined Naomh Muire side.Final score – Naomh Muire 0-10 Naomh Conaill 0-12 Next up for Naomh Muire is St. Eunans in O’Donnell Park, but they’ll look forward to that challenge after proving they can hold their own with the best in the Donegal SFC.Naomh Conaill now face Malin in their next Donegal SFC fixture next weekend.DONEGAL SFC: BRAVE NAOMH MUIRE GIVE NAOMH CONAILL A FRIGHT was last modified: September 27th, 2014 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:Donegal SFCNaomh ConaillNAOMH MUIREnewsSportlast_img read more